The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).. They support meaningful engagement, are flexible and responsive to different learners’ needs, and promote the development of students’ agency. Powered by Manifold Scholarship. Such skills support the new economy, which is characterized by “flatter management structures, decentralized decision making, information sharing, and the use of task teams” (Kay & Greenhill, 2011, p. 42), where such structures permit flexible work arrangements and encourage teams to work more creatively and productively, thus adding value to the workplace. They are broad yet direct statements that describe competencies that students should possess at the end of a course or program, competencies that show “what learners are supposed to know and what they are supposed to be able to do as a result of their learning” (Kenny, 2011, para. Buy Assessment Strategies for Online Learning : Engagement and Authenticity at Walmart.com Who among us has not received a paper back with only a checkmark on the last page and a grade? Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Positive feedback can help learners develop the self-confidence in themselves as competent learners; the resultant emotional dynamic feeds on itself, helping learners develop and maintain a learning pattern that fuels their efforts and carries them through the inevitable setbacks and hesitations that all learners face at some time. They are designed to actively engage students in their own learning by using real-life situations, requiring students to make connections and forge relationships between prior knowledge and skills, and allowing for multiple pathways for solutions and a diversity of perspectives (Moon, Brighton, Callahan, & Robinson, 2005). Feedback and Critique: Keeping the Learning Cycle Turning, Another important consideration in designing authentic assessments is planning for formative assessment and feedback. Online forums create back-and-forth dialogue: Angelina Murphy, a high school English teacher, said she used Google Classroom’s question feature to get her class to respond to readings and discussion prompts during remote learning this past spring. Three or more references have been used appropriately.” Even here, there is room for subjectivity in the assessment of relevance, thoughtfulness, logic, and coherence. More resources, including tools and platforms for creating and implementing authentic assessments 1. This chapter defines authentic assessment, grounds it in constructivist theory, and considers some of the design considerations necessary to build authentic assessments that deliver on the promise of their potential. Ships from and sold by Amazon.com. Astin et al.’s principles further assert that assessment works best when it is ongoing, not episodic, when assessment reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time; assessment also requires attention not only to outcomes but also and in equal measure to the performance that leads to those outcomes. al., 2003), and one of the great complaints by students of the reading of their assignments is that feedback is sparse or more confirmatory than explanatory. As with learning outcomes, they are touted as useful guidelines for effective teaching and learning. Design Considerations for Authentic Assessment, Work on a Habitat for Humanity project constructing housing for families with low incomes, Organize or assist with voter registration, Assist with community events and projects such as museum activities, cultural awareness programs, fairs and festivals, Adopt-a-Highway, neighbourhood clean-up and beautification days, Serve as a mentor for a young person through Big Brothers Big Sisters, Scouting, 4-H, or other youth organizations, Help senior citizens with a variety of activities that enhance their quality of life, Conduct a conservation project at a park, lakeshore, or nature centre, Tutor elementary or secondary students in a variety of subjects, work with literacy, or serve as a “Reading Partner” to encourage youngsters to develop good reading habits. It may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes, provided that the original author is credited. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. (2004) maintain that, for fairness and efficacy, it is important for teachers to set criteria and make them explicit and transparent to learners. Measuring Student Engagement in the Online Course: The Online Student Engagement Scale (OSE) Marcia D. Dixson . The following learner engagement strategies are great for addressing these needs and improving the learning experience. called for a move toward more authentic assessment strategies designed to increase learner engagement in the learning process at the same time as setting the stage for learners to develop higher-order cognitive skills that align with both learner and employer expectations. Sell, buy or rent Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity (Issues i 9781771992329 1771992328, we buy used or new for best buyback price with FREE shipping and offer great deals for buyers. Designing authentic assessments becomes more complex, however, when trying to assess higher-order cognitive skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, and communication. Like learning outcomes, rubrics are contentious learning tools. Even more important than having criteria, however, is having students engage with criteria. Astin et al.’s principles further assert that assessment works best when it is ongoing, not episodic, when assessment reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time; assessment also requires attention not only to outcomes but also and in equal measure to the performance that leads to those outcomes. Ideally, a grading rubric tells students the goals, purpose, and manner of assessment: It states why the assessment is being conducted and how learners can succeed. Assignment topics are coherently addressed and supported with relevant examples. Avoid yes/no questions and phrases like “Does this make sense?” In response to these questions, students usually answer ‘yes.’ So, of course, it’s surprising when several students later admit that they’re lost. Dianne Conrad spent thirty-three years teaching and researching, most recently at Athabasca University in the Centre for Distance Education. However, all too often, rubrics are developed as a required add-on to assignments and follow a template that is generic, vague, and in its vagueness, open to the usual degree of subjectivity exercised by the marker of the assignment. Within the CoI framework, assessment is part of “teaching presence,” the unifying force that “brings together the social and cognitive processes directed to personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile outcomes” (Vaughan, Garrison, & Cleveland-Innes, 2013, p. 12). According to Gulikers et al. 600-603. Other distinguishing features of authentic assessments include a longer and sustained time period and the use of multiple products, which. In addition to providing feedback, the constructivist approach that we have espoused requires that students actively engage with the feedback. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning : Engagement and Authenticity. Athabasca: Athabasca University Press. III. Assignment topics are coherently addressed and supported with relevant examples. 2. As a strategy to promote learner engagement, online communication can involve casual group discussions, guided peer learning or informal spaces for asking questions. PDF (Français (Canada)) ... Book Review of Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, 2018 Michael Dabrowski PDF ... instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. These two examples highlight the wealth of 50 years of research validating active and collaborative pedagogies. Conclusion is relevant and insightful. She is the co-editor of the International Review of Open and Distributed Education and is a member of several editorial boards of international journals. Rust et al. In their investigation of assessment methods and learning approaches, Conrad and Openo explore assessment that engages and authentically evaluates learning. In the same criticism, Dron accuses learning outcomes of trying to bridge the gap between “knowing how” and “knowing that” (p. 296). The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).. The most useful type of feedback is timely, detailed, and precise so that it can support learning. Authentic assessments emerge from constructivist and social-constructivist theory and from collaborative-constructivist transactional process models such as the Community of Inquiry. 22 Simple Assessment Strategies & Tips You Can Use Every Day. The nature of service-learning often demands authentic assessments as faculty struggle to capture the real world transfer skills they believe are developing in their students. Distance education students. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . What does it mean to write, in a rubric: “Learners will demonstrate a high degree of comprehension of subject matter?” Similarly, consider this longer and more detailed rubric: “Content/ideas are thoughtful, relevant and presented clearly and. I. Openo, Jason, 1973-, author II. 600-603. Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library. A student's current knowledge, attitudes, and skills about subject matter 2. As a tool and an aid to learning, they can indeed be helpful to learners in outlining the conditions of the assessment instrument and, as Mathur and Murray indicate, rubrics can guide learners in knowing how to complete the task successfully. (Colby et al., 2003, pp.       Assessment strategies for online learning : engagement and authenticity / Dianne Conrad and Jason Openo. By keeping in mind some basic tenets of assessment, online educators can adapt their assessment activities to provide useful feedback, accountability and opportunities to demon-strate quality. Both learning outcomes and rubrics should—ideally—precede assessment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1344/der.2018.34.115-117 Refbacks. 41, No. 136–138). To design an effective authentic assessment in any environment, one could ask, “How can I use assessment to encourage students to adopt a surface approach to learning, and then do the opposite?” (Wittmann-Price & Godshall, 2009, p. 216). (2005) cite Sadler (1989), who identified three conditions for effective feedback: (1) a knowledge of the standards in use; (2) comparison of those standards to one’s own work; and (3) the required action to close the gap between the two. 7. (2003, p. 136). Online Student Engagement Tools and Strategies • www.FacultyFocus.com Most online students, even those who are successful, will tell you it takes an extra dose of motiva- tion to stay on top of their assignments compared to the traditional classroom. In summary, Reeves, Herrington, and Oliver (2002) have written extensively on authentic activities in online learning contexts, and the table below provides 10 characteristics of online tasks and the opportunities that authenticity should afford students, along with supporting research. To obtain permission for uses beyond those outlined in the Creative Commons license, please contact AU Press, Athabasca University, at aupress@athabascau.ca. The book Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, Dianne Conrad,Jason Openo, is published by Athabasca University Press. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity (Issues in Distance Education) Few skills are truly generic, and transfer of knowledge and skills to very different contexts is difficult. 6. Authentic assessments include activities that closely match real-world tasks undertaken by practitioners (Herrington, Oliver, & Reeves, 2006). Free shipping for many products! This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Noncommercial–NoDerivative Works 4.0 International: see, . These principles of good practice suggest that successful assessment begins with issues of use and then focuses on the issues relevant to educators and learners. When teachers take the time to analyze student work, they gain knowledge about: 1. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Given the variety of ways in which assessment can be used and the blurring of lines between summative and formative depending on that usage (see Chapter 1’s discussion), “formative assessment” here refers to assessment that fosters a response to the learner, regardless of whether or not a grade is assigned to the work. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity Cristina Galván Fernández cgalvan@ub.edu Universitat de Barcelona, Spain Book Review: Conrad, D. and Opreno, J. (2018). Services . Student assessment has changed in the new millennium. For many learners assessment conjures up visions of red pens scrawling percentages in the top right-hand corner of exams and feelings of stress, inadequacy, and failure. 1. Distance Education: Vol. Webb and Gibson confirm the value of collaborative, technology-enhanced learning, arguing that learning in technology-enabled collaborative environments requires cognitive, metacognitive, and social skills to develop “shared task understanding, negotiating shared perspectives, argumentation, and maintaining focus” (2015, p. 678). Peer assessment (see, ) can also be a particularly useful approach to building a knowledge of standards, comparing those standards to a learning object, and providing students opportunities to engage with feedback and improve their work. I. Openo, Jason, 1973-, author II. 5.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. Physical context accounts for the relationship between where we are and how we do something. Conrad and Openo's combined wealth of experience as adult educators and online practitioners is evident in this well written text on assessment strategies for online learning. Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison (2013) suggest that, to promote student engagement by using feedback, “instructors in a blended community of inquiry are also encouraged to take a portfolio approach to assessment, [as] this involves students receiving a second chance or opportunity for summative assessment on their course assignments” (p. 93). Athabasca: Athabasca University Press. Even though assessing higher-order cognitive processes and skills is difficult, it does not diminish the fact that design must commence with a focus on constructive alignment (Rust et al., 2005). Social. Title. Given the variety of ways in which assessment can be used and the blurring of lines between summative and formative depending on that usage (see. Exploring and understanding our philosophical approach, as teachers, is key to this process. Learning is an active, constructive process. The role of learning outcomes in the alignment and planning process is discussed in, The examples that follow are actual rubrics, instructor-written and designer approved, for a university course. These principles highlight constructivist learning approaches, which form the foundation for the construction of effective authentic assessments. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity (Issues in Distance Education) Kindle Edition by Dianne Conrad (Author), Jason Openo (Author) Format: Kindle Edition. New Releases Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity (Issues in The Higher Educational Quality Council of Ontario offered a three-part series on the challenges and opportunities in assessment in late 2015, and Educause offered a three-part digital badge series (entitled. One way to increase the likelihood that transfer will be successful is to make the context in which skills and knowledge are learned more similar to the settings in which they will be used. Another important consideration in designing authentic assessments is planning for formative assessment and feedback. They insist that moving to new learning environments, specifically those online and at a distance, afford opportunities for educators to adopt only the best practices of traditional face-to-face assessment while exploring evaluation tools made available by a digital learning environment in the hopes of arriving at methods that capture the widest set of learner skills and attributes. Educational tests and measurements. : Assessment Strategies for Online Learning : Engagement and Authenticity by Jason Openo and Dianne Conrad (2018, Trade Paperback) at the best online prices at eBay! We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund (CBF) for our publishing activities and the assistance provided by the Government of Alberta through the Alberta Media Fund. (Issues in distance education series) Includes bibliographical references and index. The role of learning outcomes in the alignment and planning process is discussed in Chapter 7. To assess these different areas, Astin et al., in their list of principles, recommended that assessment begin with educational values, and they caution that when values are skipped over, assessment diminishes to measuring what’s easy, rather than offering a process that seeks to improve what’s important to learners. Defining the evaluation taking as an epicentre the reflection that the students do is to go to the heart of the educational question. The ability to both give and receive quality feedback is an essential communication skill in itself, as well as forming a component of authentic leadership (George, Sims, McLean & Mayer, 2011). Defining the evaluation taking as an epicentre the reflection that the students do is to go to the heart of the educational question. Series: Issues in distance education series, LB3051.C66 2018            371.26            C2018-902629-4,                                C2018-902630-8. posit that it is fair to say that when done well, teaching methods that actively involve students in the learning process and provide them with opportunities for interaction with their peers as well as with faculty enhance students’ content learning, critical thinking, transfer of learning to new situations, and such aspects of moral and civic development as a sense of social responsibility, tolerance, and non-authoritarianism. Addressing the need for the thoughtful design of authentic assessment, Gulikers, Bastiaens, and Kirschner (2004) developed the Five-Dimensional Framework for Authentic Assessment, a framework that includes essential planning elements to consider when designing authentic assessment: Task, Physical Context, Social Context, Assessment Result or Form, and Criteria and Standards. And as authentic assessment is “connected to adults’ life circumstances, frames of reference, and values” (Wlodkowski, 2008, p. 313), such assessments encourage participants to bring their authentic selves to the learning environment. Fuller discussions of learning outcomes and their contribution to authentic learning and assessment are found later in this chapter and in, Often equated to the behavioural objectives posed by Gagne (1971) and Mager (1997) decades ago, learning outcomes are a source of contention among educators. logically. Mail (2003), “the research literature on the effectiveness of pedagogies of engagement is extensive; it is also complicated because their impact depends on the quality and conditions of their use and the specific outcomes chosen to be assessed” (p. 136). Everything in the curriculum—the learning outcomes, learning and teaching methods, and assessment methods—should follow one from another and be connected in demonstrable ways. (2004), assessment results include (a) a quality product or performance that students would be asked to produce in real life, (b) demonstration that permits making valid inferences about the underlying competencies, (c) multiple indicators of learning in order to come to fair conclusions, and (d) the expectation that students should defend their work to others to ensure that their apparent mastery is genuine. There are currently no refbacks. 1. (2020). [Edmonton, AB: AU Press] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2019394430/. Chickering and Gamson’s “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (1991) encourages respect for diverse talents and ways of learning. Athabasca: Athabasca University Press. These strategies apply to all learning environments, but they are especially relevant in the context of remote learning. The contribution of principles of adult education to online learning and assessment 3. Student engagement is critical to student learning, especially in the online environment, where students can often feel isolated and disconnected. The development of genuine understanding is supported by the capacity to represent an idea or skill in more than one modality, and learning benefits from experiences that provide a wider array of modalities than those that usually dominate higher education (namely the linguistic and logical/mathematical). Many students say they would like feedback more regularly (Colby et. Matuga (2006) writes that “situating assessment and evaluation as essentially social activities, influenced by unique affordances and constraints of a particular educational context, is a critical pedagogical component when designing and teaching online courses” (p. 317). For many learners assessment conjures up visions of red pens scrawling percentages in the top right-hand corner of exams and feelings of stress, inadequacy, and failure. Providing multiple opportunities to submit iterations of their work, and thereby encouraging students to work to close the gap between current and desired performance, is highly authentic and similar to real-world work contexts. For example, with the same kind of preparation and structure as would be provided from classroom instruction, online learners could enter into a service-learning arrangement in their communities. (Issues in distance education series) Includes bibliographical references and index. Genuine and enduring learning occurs when students are interested in, even enthusiastic about, what they are learning, when they see it as important for their present and future goals. Another one of the benefits in having students employ the criteria and standards by which they will be judged in a marking exercise is the constant refinement of the rubric itself for greater clarity and appropriateness. A framework for assessment in online learning: The big picture 2. III. These expectations correspond to Herrington et al.’s (2006) perspective on the value of authentic tasks and their “polished products.” Criteria and standards, therefore, become valued characteristics of assessments, with standards being the level of performance expected. Authentic assessments are frequently collaborative in nature, routinely using technology-rich co-construction environments (Barber, King, & Buchanan, 2015). 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