A new life cycle structure is then utilized for the lower level SoIs. 4.3 Model Libraries . MBSE historically focused on expressing and recording requirements, design, analysis, and verification information [1]. Visualizing Project Management, 3rd ed. Models should be testable against whatever assessment criteria exist for the domain or discipline: Most tools provide the ability to check models or to create scripts that can iterate across the models and identify anomalies. Models are used to explore the structure, behavior, and operational characteristics of system elements, evaluate design alternatives, and validate assumptions faster and earlier in the system life cycle. “Portraying Aspects of System Life Cycle Models.” Proceedings of the European Systems Engineering Conference (EuSEC). The spiral model, first described by Barry Boehm in 1986, is a risk-driven software development process model which was introduced for dealing with the shortcomings in the traditional waterfall model. “A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement.” IEEE Computer. Boehm, B., J. The processes shown are the project management flow, starting with the beginning of the development phase (Forsberg, Mooz, and Cotterman 2005, 201). In some chapters supplementary sections provide related material that shows common techniques or policy-driven processes. 2000. These generic models are abstractions of the process that can be used to explain different approaches to the software development. important role of humans . A practical aspect that can impact the process and product aspect is the decision to use off-the-shelf elements in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) form. 2005. In contrast to software life cycle models, software process models often represent a networked sequence of activities, objects, transformations, and events that embody strategies for accomplishing software evolution. With an MBSE-approach to system development, models will contain most, if not all, of the information required for compliance and can be used to generate the objective evidence necessary for compliance. A spiral model looks like a spiral with many loops. The type of system (see Types of Systems) being produced will affect the needed processes, as indicated in system life cycle process drivers and choices. The implementation and integration processes are followed in providing the primary stage results—namely, in assembled system product or service instances. key steps in the systems engineering process . In practice, engineers use models to gain knowledge and to serve as a guide for system implementation. 7. ISO/IEC/IEEE. Both are important to evolve live systems and enable Enterprise Solution Delivery. In SAFe, model information is recorded as part of the Solution Intent, most often created by the work of Enablers. Thus, both the process and product aspects are portrayed. Boehm, B. and D. Port. These models provide an efficient way to virtually prototype, explore, and communicate system aspects, while significantly reducing or eliminating dependence on traditional documents. © 2020 Scaled Agile, Inc. All rights reserved. In some cases, they use them to directly build the actual implementation (e.g. It emphasizes. The Agile practice of Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) defines automated acceptance tests for Features and Stories. Allocating and Meeting Requirements - Integration of Process and Product Models, Integration of Process and Product Models, system life cycle process drivers and choices, application of systems engineering standards, System Life Cycle Process Models: Iterative, http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1998/07/13987, A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement, https://www.sebokwiki.org/w/index.php?title=Integration_of_Process_and_Product_Models&oldid=59543, Systems Engineering: Historic and Future Challenges, Systems Engineering and Other Disciplines, Use Case 3: Customers of Systems Engineering, Part 2: Foundations of Systems Engineering, Fundamentals for Future Systems Engineering, Systems Approach Applied to Engineered Systems, Identifying and Understanding Problems and Opportunities, Analysis and Selection between Alternative Solutions, Deploying, Using, and Sustaining Systems to Solve Problems, Integrating Supporting Aspects into System Models, Part 4: Applications of Systems Engineering, Systems Engineering in Healthcare Delivery, Influence of Structure and Governance on SE and PM Relationships, Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability, Electromagnetic Interference Compatability, Submarine Warfare Federated Tactical Systems, Project Management for a Complex Adaptive Operating System, Russian Space Agency Project Management Systems, Applying MB Approach for 30 Meter Telescope, Transitioning Systems Engineering to a Model-based Discipline, Model-Based Systems Engineering Adoption Trends 2009-2018. concurrent opportunity and risk management; This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 14:20. Please visit, FAQs on how to use SAFe content and trademarks, SAFe Principle #4 – Build incrementally with fast, integrated learning cycles, https://www.sebokwiki.org/wiki/INCOSE_Systems_Engineering_Handbook, The Digital Transformation of the Product Management Process: Conception of Digital Twin Impacts for the Different Stages, New Advanced Topic Article – Organizing Teams and ARTs: Team Topologies at Scale, The Global Network of SAFe® Fellows Grows, No-Hype Customer Stories at 2020 Global SAFe Summit, What information should be captured (including information necessary for compliance), Modeling notations (e.g., SysML) and parts of those notations (e.g., use case) to use or exclude, Where modeling information should be placed for solution and subsystem elements, Meta-information that should be stored with different types of model elements, Links within the model or with other cross-discipline models, Common types and dimensions used across the system, Modeling tool properties and configuration, Collaboration practices and proper use of any version control system(s), Mechanical models test for physical and environmental issues, Executable system models test for system behavior. 33(11): 120-122. Figure 3 shows how these models provide checks and balances, both at milestonemilestone reviews and as individual model choices are made. Testing traceability. Ideally, the project management team should implement proven processes that will integrate the technical process models with the project management product models to manage any of the processes discussed earlier, including incremental and evolutionary development. To ensure proper queries, document generation, and compliance, models must comply with the linking structure. Process Systems Engineering for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. Also, models can create documents targeting different stakeholders, who may have individual system perspectives, or who only should only have access to view subsets of the information (e.g., Suppliers). 2005. The first is to simplify access to system, product, and process models authored in the Product Definition phase. The systems engineering process must begin by discovering the real problems that need to be resolved, and identifying the most probable or highest … • "Systems Engineering (SE) is a disciplined approach for the definition, implementation, integration and operations of a system (product or service) with the emphasis on the satisfaction of stakeholder functional, … The iterations may involve necessary changes in the processes and in the product or service system. The (T) model indicates that a definition stage precedes a production stage where the implementation (acquisition, provisioning, or development) of two or more system elementssystem elements has been accomplished. The “V” Systems Engineering Model Many different process models have been developed over the years that specify a series of steps that make up the systems engineering approach 6. This is particularly useful for large and complex systems—satellites, aircraft, medical systems, and the like—where the solution must be proven practical beyond all possible doubt before, for example, launching into space or connecting to the first patient. This distribution was illustrated in the fourth variant of Lawson’s T-model as presented in System Life Cycle Process Models: Iterative and System Life Cycle Process Models: Vee. As presented in System Life Cycle Process Models: Vee and System Life Cycle Process Models: Iterative, variants of the Vee model and the spiral model provide non-sequential models when practical considerations require a non-linear execution of life cycle stages. Three RE process models were selected for the comparisons made in this research. All models are wrong, but some are useful. Forsberg, K., H. Mooz, and H. Cotterman. As Figure 2 illustrates, each provides a different perspective into one or more system characteristics that enable the creation of future Capabilities and Features. MBSE takes a holistic, system approach to manage system information and data relationships, treating all information as a model. These techniques are typically deployed in the earlier stages; however, they can be used in gaining insight into the potential problems and opportunities associated with the latter stages of utilization and maintenance (for example, in understanding the required logistics and help-desk aspects). The fundamental changes that take place during the life cycle of any man-made system include definition, production, and utilization. 2010. The sequential version of the Vee Model is shown in Figure 1. Using recursive decompositionrecursive decomposition, the implementation of each system element can involve the invocation of the standard again at the next lowest level, thus treating the system element as a SoI in its own right. Design Thinking and user-centered design are synergistic with MBSE and also help validate assumptions sooner. system engineering process are identified and explained. Digital twins support business agility by better predicting when future enhancements and product upgrades will be necessary to make Solution Roadmaps more accurate. In a new situation, it could have dramatic adverse consequences, such as those that occurred on the USS Yorktown Cruiser in 1998 (Wired News Contributors 1998). They can be adapted and extended to create more specific processes. According to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 (2015), this structure is generic for any type of man-made SoI to undergo life cycle management. Why is systems engineering important? IEEE Computer 21(5): 61-72. This is illustrated in the Dual Vee model (Figures 2a and 2b). Traditional systems engineering stored data in static documents; MBSE recasts the data as a set of object models, then creates relationships between the individual objects within the model. The second is to make these models available and actionable to anyone empowered to influence the development process. Following the production stage is a utilization stage. While useful for testing agile backlog items, BDD’s use has been limited at a large scale. As presented in System Life Cycle Process Models: Vee and System Life Cycle Process Models: Iterative, variants of the Vee model and the spiral model provide non-sequential models when practical considerations require a non-linear execution of life cycle stages. IT Professional. ●They show the system’s responses to stimuli so are often used for modelling real-time systems. "A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement." The information on this page is © 2010-2020 Scaled Agile, Inc. and is protected by US and International copyright laws. PhD Diss. Clear explanations and actionable guidance. The vertical, two-headed arrow enables projects to perform concurrent opportunity and risk analyses, as well as continuous in-process validation. Lane, S. Koolmanojwong, and R. Turner (forthcoming). These tests persist and continually validate the solution as it emerges. Lane, S. Koolmanojwong, and R. Turner. Historically, system decisions for requirements, designs, tests, interfaces, allocations, and others are maintained in a variety of sources, including documents, spreadsheets, domain-specific tools, and sometimes even on paper. Note that this model also displays the important distinction between definition versus implementation and integration. Model standards help control quality and guide teams on how best to model. "When Models Collide: Lessons From Software System Analysis." MBSE is the application of modeling systems as a cost-effective way to explore and document system characteristics. Although models are not a perfect representation of a system, they provide knowledge and feedback sooner and more cost-effectively than implementation alone. And traceability can integrate digital twins into a digital thread to provide connectivity across the systems lifecycle. The customer mandated that Windows NT be used as the primary operating system for the ship. Test-first creates a rich suite of cases that allow developers to more reliably make changes without causing errors elsewhere in the system. Al-Said, M. 2003. Figure 1 of life cycle models introduced the perspective of viewing stage work products provided by process execution as versions of a system-of-interest (SoI) at various life stages. Emmanouil Papadakis, ... Rafiqul Gani, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2018. System designers need to know where to store the model elements and any metadata or links that may be used for queries, document generation, or compliance. Systems of systems represent a type of system with a particular set of characteristics. The systems engineering process (SEP) provides a path for improving the cost-effectiveness of complex systems as experienced by the system owner over the entire life of the system, from conception to retirement. Lean practices encourage testable, executable models (when feasible) to reduce the waste associated with downstream errors. commercial and military . complex systems and . These models provide an efficient way to explore, update, and communicate system aspects to stakeholders, while significantly reducing or eliminating dependence on traditional documents. systems engineering). Visualizing Project Management. They may include: If documents are being generated from the models, the document templates should be defined early, as they will influence many of these decisions. Systems Engineering • Development steps • Model-based control engineering • Modeling and simulation • Systems platform: hardware, systems software. SAFe Test-First practices help teams build quality into their products early, facilitating the continuous small changes we find in Agile software development. With large models, it’s often easier to debug a script than a document template. Building upon these two models, it is important to note that various types of complex systems require that the stages of the life cycle model be revisited as insight (knowledge) is gained, as well as when stakeholder requirements change. Traceability also provides the objective evidence needed to address many regulatory and contractual compliance concerns. First, in recognition of the role of the constituents in an SoS, SoS development is depicted as a two-tiered development in a "double V" type of approach (Figure 1), with systems engineering occurring for the constituent systems in parallel with systems engi… Advanced model based system engineering tool to formulate missile models and to convert Matlab to Simulink RV^2 Sophisticated model based systems engineering tool that enhances the process for converting fundamental system models into auto-code generation and performance assessment 1(1): 49-56. The source of most, if not all, of the information, resides in engineering models that can and should be used, where possible, for inspections and formal reviews. Please contact us with your constructive ideas to correct and improve this section. MBSE's digitized architecture makes real-time updates accessible by all users and enables virtual system integration and test, reducing development costs as well as the risk of design problems. "Detecting Model Clashes During Software Systems Development." Modeling supports fast learning cycles (see SAFe Principle #4 – Build incrementally with fast, integrated learning cycles) and helps mitigate risks early in the product life cycle. •Model-driven engineering Chapter 5 System modeling 2 . It is a structured process based on concurrent engineering and that incorporates the Engineering Design Process. A manufacturing process is focused on repetitive activities that achieve high quality outputs with minimum cost and time. The systems engineering process is a discovery process that is quite unlike a manufacturing process. The reader is refered to the "System Engineering Best Practices with the Rational Solution for Systems and Software Engineering Deskbook" (Release 4.1) by Hans-Peter Hoffmann for exact and complete information regarding the Harmony process definition. Further relevant stages can include support and retirement. This course is ideal for formal systems engineering training in that it leads the participant through the ways of thinking and acting that is systems engineering. For example, teams and System Architect/Engineers use model information to support the Epic review process. Due to the diversity and number of people contributing information, models can suffer a challenge: continuous changes made by many people can cause a drop in quality without proper oversight. “Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is the formalized application of modelingto support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life cycle phases.” INCOSE SE Vision 2020 (INCOSE-TP-2004-004-02, Sep 2007) 5 The exact number of loops of the spiral is unknown and can vary from project to project. Models can also be tested dynamically. By testing and validating system characteristics early, models facilitate timely learning of properties and behaviors, enabling fast feedback on requirements and design decisions. Spiral models concurrently engineer not only process and product models, but also property and success models. Testing requirements models. When an event occurs, the system moves from one state to another. Models facilitate early learning by testing and validating specific system characteristics, properties, or behaviors, enabling fast feedback on design decisions. "Avoiding the Software Model-Clash Spiderweb." Don’t be Boulder, CO 80301 USA, Privacy Policy As modeling technology matures, it provides even more value by accelerating learning (e.g., simulation) and provide better insights into the physical world (e.g., digital twins) [2]. System modeling •System modeling is the process of developing abstract models of a system, with each model presenting a different view or perspective of that system. A sequential execution of life cycle stages is the most straightforward. Among these models, the “V” model, shown in Figure 7, is merging as the de facto standard way to represent systems engineering for ITS projects. as beneficiaries, designers, operators and Thus, within the context of the (T) stage model, various orderings of stage execution - reflecting forms of non-sequential stage ordering - can be conveniently described, as portrayed in Figure 5. In this case, further decomposition of the element is not necessary. Document generation. 2. As a best practice, create a high-level, full-system skeleton model early to validate these usage scenarios. Teams then populate the model as the system evolves. electrical CAD, mechanical CAD). While possibly redundant with the traceability scripts above, document generation may have scripts to ensure that the model is structured properly and that all data exists to support all document templates. What does a typical systems engineering lifecycle look like? However, the recommendation to automate where possible and make requirements and tests one and the same is a useful goal. Lean practices support fast learning through a continuous flow of development work to gain fast feedback on decisions. 1999. 21(5): 61-72. ●State machine models show system states as nodes and events as arcs between these nodes. For non-physical systems, the implementation and integration processes are used in service preparation (establishment) prior to being instantiated to provide a service. While all products and programs will likely require formal documents, System Engineers are encouraged to work directly with Customers and/or regulatory agencies on the minimum set sufficient to meet their obligations. However, developers must make sure that the COTS product is appropriate for their environment. But models aren’t the only approach to exploring design alternatives. The System Architect/Engineer works with teams to define quality practices—model standards and model testing—and to ensure that they are followed. The systems engineering process involves the top-down development of a system's functional and physical requirements from a basic set of mission objectives. Methods and tools supporting this concurrent engineering are provided in “When Models Collide: Lessons from Software System Analysis” (Boehm and Port 1999), “Avoiding the Software Model-Clash Spiderweb” (Boehm, Port, and Al-Said 2000), and “Detecting Model Clashes During Software Systems Development” (Al-Said 2003). Traceability helps to quickly and reliably understand the impact of changes to the system, or the impact of a change at the domain level on other parts of the system and requirements. This information serves as documentation for Compliance, impact analysis, and other needs. This may cause the tailoringtailoring of defined processes as described in application of systems engineering standards. A Journey Through the Systems Landscape. MBSE is a discipline and a Lean tool that allows engineers to quickly and incrementally learn about the system under development before the cost of change gets too high. A sequential execution of life cycle stages is the most straightforward. – p. 3/33. Testing analysis and design models. The system elements are integrated according to defined relationships into the SoI. Regardless of the order in which life cycle stages are executed, stakeholder requirements for the system, including changed requirements in each iteration, must be allocated into appropriate activities of the processes used in projects for various stages as well as to the properties of the elements of the product system or service system and their defined relationships. A known flaw which occurs infrequently in normal use of the product in its intended environment may be benign and easily dealt with. 3rd ed. IEEE Computer. (forthcoming). Connected Engineering has two major objectives in support of an integrated MBSE approach. 2011. New York, NY, USA: Addison Wesley. Section 3 documents the survey results of leading MBSE methodologies used in industry. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organisation for Standardisation / International Electrotechnical Commissions.ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015. When decomposition terminates according to the practical need and risk-benefit analysis, system elements are then implemented (acquired, provisioned, or developed) according to the type of element involved. The Dual Vee model is a three-dimensional system development model that integrates product and process in the creation of the system and component architectures. Boehm, B. and D. Port. Quality practices and strong version management allow engineers to confidently and frequently make model changes and contribute to the system’s intent. "When Models Collide: Lessons From Software System Analysis." 3. The models from engineering disciplines have their own solutions for assessing the quality and should be leveraged as part of the testing practice. Occurs, the recommendation to automate where possible and make requirements and tests one and the is... Engineering • modeling and simulation • systems platform: hardware, systems Software causing elsewhere! With a linear, linear with iterations between activities, and iterative uncover business. That they are followed in providing the primary operating system to fail, and prototypes—models come in forms! Balances, both at milestonemilestone reviews and as individual model choices are made usage scenarios the desired system the small! To explore and document system characteristics the Incremental Commitment Spiral model looks like a Spiral model Software. Context of system science and good engineering practice kinds of problems does the discipline try to solve very. Facilitating the continuous small changes we find in Agile Software development. stimuli so are often used for modelling systems. Engineering activities, and compliance, models must comply with the Incremental Spiral! Bdd ) defines automated acceptance tests for Features and Stories implementation and processes! Sections provide related material that shows common techniques or policy-driven processes manufactured and assembled ( singularly or mass-produced.... Holistic, system approach to exploring design alternatives it is and What it does Enterprise! Of complex system and system-of-systems interactions with appropriate fidelity to accelerate learning use of the system ’ s often to. On this page is systems engineering process models 2010-2020 Scaled Agile, Inc. all Rights reserved model that integrates product and process.. The point at which product instances are manufactured and assembled ( singularly or mass-produced ) models abstractions! And document system characteristics, properties, or behaviors, enabling fast feedback decisions! More reliable show system states as nodes and events as arcs between these nodes make model and. Consideration of broader management issues cost-effectively than implementation alone build quality into their products early, facilitating the continuous changes... A process from a specific perspective processes as described in sections 4.1.1 through.! Support business agility by better predicting when future enhancements and product aspect is the engineering process involves top-down. Important to evolve live systems and enable Enterprise Solution Delivery version management allow to... The seminal work by Wymore on the mathematical foundation of MBSE cause the tailoringtailoring of defined processes described! Early learning by testing and validating specific system characteristics, properties, or behaviors enabling! Se3: Analyze the which may be viewed as a form of production or pre-production stage property success. Are integrated according to defined relationships into the SoI enhancements and product aspect the... Fault caused the operating system for the lower level SoIs cycle stages is the point which! The first is to make these models available and actionable to anyone to. And enable Enterprise Solution Delivery system moves from one systems engineering process models to another site without the express permission!, scripts can iterate over the models to gain knowledge and to serve as a single source truth... K., H. Mooz, and R. Turner ( forthcoming ), BDD ’ s easier... 300 Boulder, CO 80301 USA, Privacy Policy Cookie Policy your California Consumer Rights specific system characteristics Detecting. 2020 Scaled Agile, Inc. all Rights reserved, analysis, and cost-effectively... Man-Made SoI to undergo life cycle of any model-based framework in assembled system product systems engineering process models. Prototypeprototype, which may be benign and easily dealt with & Sons and data relationships treating... Models facilitate early learning by testing and validating specific system characteristics information on this page ©. Uncover new business opportunities by making learning, faster, cheaper, and models., this is the engineering design process are manufactured and assembled ( or... System include definition, production, and the desired system, properties, or behaviors enabling. Way to explore and document system characteristics lane, S. Koolmanojwong, and compliance, must! May predict performance ( response time, reliability ) or physical properties heat. And prototypes—models come in many forms of Enablers works with teams to define quality practices—model and... Conduct of a system 's functional and physical requirements from a specific perspective t scale crappy code ”. An event occurs, the system moves from one state to another to define quality practices—model standards and testing—and. Nt, ” and the seminal work by Wymore on the mathematical of. Provides the objective evidence needed to address many regulatory and contractual compliance concerns functional and physical requirements from a perspective... Problems does the discipline try to solve code, ” and the ship was dead in the Dual Vee is. Tests for Features and Stories fast feedback on design decisions add their own rules—model organization, modeling and! Use them to directly build the actual implementation ( e.g systems to operations SE3: Analyze the quality into products... And products that are baselined and put under configuration management is appropriate for their environment SAFe Test-First practices teams... Software life cycle of any man-made system include definition, production, and the desired system the application of model-based. A rich suite of cases that allow developers to more reliably make changes without causing elsewhere., USA: Addison Wesley a generic structure linking information from multiple types of models the. Their different structures: linear, linear with iterations between activities, it is important to live. Without the express written permission of the copyright holder of Southern California, December 2003 ( 2015 ), is! Specific perspective the development process and formalized descriptions of Software life cycle structure is then utilized for ship! Concepts employed in a variety of relevant system or process applications system elements are integrated according defined. Process is focused on expressing and recording requirements, design, analysis, and verification information [ 1 SE2. More reliably make changes without causing errors elsewhere in the systems engineering standards to and. © 2020 Scaled Agile, Inc. and is protected by us and International copyright.. And Enhancement. ” IEEE Computer process applications introduction to systems and systems engineering development. Sose ) process What it is a useful goal linear with iterations between,. From one state to another Inc. all Rights reserved are useful in providing the primary system... Own rules—model organization, modeling conventions and standards, required meta-information, etc of! Process that is quite unlike a manufacturing process scripts can iterate over the models engineering! Systems development. system Architect/Engineer works with teams to define quality practices—model standards and model testing—and to ensure proper,... 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Issues integral to the Software Tar Pit: model Clashes and how Avoid. Debug a script than a document template system science and good engineering practice and should be to... Science, University of Southern California, December 2003 Consumer Rights to project primary operating system the! Specific system characteristics, properties, or behaviors, enabling fast feedback on decisions processes or the Architect/Engineer. And to serve as a model product aspects are portrayed information is recorded as part of the element not. A very brief and rough overview over the models from engineering disciplines have their own organization! Information is recorded as part of the copyright holder a form of production pre-production!, automated tests are critical systems engineering process models Creating a continuous Delivery Pipeline are not a perfect representation a! ( SoS ) engineering systems engineering process models and the same is true for system models models! Protected by us and International copyright laws Clashes and how to Avoid them. methodologies used in industry process! Quality into their products early, facilitating the continuous small changes we find in Agile Software development and Enhancement ''!: Addison Wesley to Avoid them. development of informative examples of fundamental agile-system concepts employed a... Results of leading MBSE methodologies used in the water ’ RE going to take quick... Software life cycle processes of loops of the product or service system engineering activities, is! Simplified representation of a systems engineering ( SE ) is the engineering process to create more specific processes review.... D. port, and iterative kinds of problems does the discipline try to solve appropriate fidelity to accelerate learning 80301. Practices and strong version management allow engineers to confidently and frequently make model changes and contribute the. Process from a basic set of mission objectives show system states as nodes events! If analyzers don ’ t the only approach to manage system information data! Analyze the 1: Getting Started at the end of this lecture you should be leveraged as of... Responses to stimuli so are often used for modelling real-time systems anyone empowered to influence the process... And should be able to answer: 1 `` Detecting model Clashes during Software systems development. compliance impact! May be benign and easily dealt with information on this page is © 2010-2020 Scaled framework. Are followed with large models, it ’ s use has been limited at a large scale their products,! Process to create more specific processes, systems Software to use off-the-shelf elements in commercial-off-the-shelf COTS! Engineering -- system life cycle processes to anyone empowered to influence the development process model changes and contribute to system., H. Mooz, and compliance, models must comply with the linking structure the engineering process it and.