a. Use commas to set off a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it. Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. The Texas Law Review Manual on Usage, Style, and Editing  insists on the use of the serial comma. There’s a lot of confusion, especially with students, about whether you should use a comma before using ‘and’. Accuracy This policy applies to all personal data processed by the Business. Lynne Truss writes: "There are people who embrace the Oxford comma, and people who don't, and I'll just say this: never get between these people when drink has been taken." A list of items can be punctuated like this: We need … 3. Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. A list of items can be punctuated like this: We need bread, milk, cheese, and eggs. Patti and her friends are debating about the serial comma—the comma that comes before the final conjunction in a list. Get It Write Online Although such logical precision might seem trivial when we are talking about topics at a conference, it can be absolutely crucial in certain kinds of writing. Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors, but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. The suit involved a Maine state law that said workers were not entitled to overtime pay if their work is “canning, processing, preserving, freezing, drying, marketing, storing, packing for shipment or distribution” of certain foods. c. This policy shall be reviewed at least annually. Why? The comma in front of the word and is optional. Leaving the comma out before “and” in a list of three or more items seems to join the last two items, at least to me. Say you’re talking about a new house. d. Appropriate back-up and disaster recovery solutions shall be in place. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. Without the serial comma before the last and, the sentence could be interpreted to mean that only the children of Betty and Harold Spivey are to receive a share of the inheritance and not the children of the other couples. Learn when you must use it. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. 6. A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or … Look at the following example. In the first case, the “serial comma” or “Oxford comma” is used after the penultimate item in the list. 8. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or.It occurs in two slightly different circumstances. When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. Each applicant will be asked to list his or her name, address, sex and roommate preferences. Data Protection Policy Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma In all kinds of writing, of course, the meaning of the items in a list may be obvious without the serial comma. But even this seemingly simple and clear sentence could be read two ways: It is always wise to check your company’s in-house style manual or the style manual that governs your profession. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. If we were to write, for example, “The table was covered with gifts, food and flowers,” the meaning might appear to be quite clear without the serial comma. To ensure its processing of data is lawful, fair and transparent, the Business shall maintain a Register of Systems. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. A comma should precede the term etc. Her Wilks score is 302. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… General provisions Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. 2. A comma is also used before the words "and" or "but" to join two independent clauses. GDPR means the General Data Protection Regulation. When writing a list, you should put a comma between each item, except for the last item where you use ‘and’. (An independent clause is one that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.) The Serial Comma. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Well, forget proper. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Commas are used to separate list items. b. Take legal documents, for example. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four distinct uses. 2. b. collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes; further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes shall not be considered to be incompatible with the initial purposes; b. When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. Commas don't just signify pauses in a sentence — precise rules govern when to use this punctuation mark. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. c. Where consent is relied upon as a lawful basis for processing data, evidence of opt-in consent shall be kept with the personal data. ) isn't "in" the list - it precedes the list. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? comma before “and” looks like a new thing in Grammar world. Appositives act as synonyms for a … “The woods are lovely, dark and deep.” (Robert Frost, in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”). Where necessary for the lawful basis on which data is processed, steps shall be put in place to ensure that personal data is kept up to date. For example, some would write the sentence “I am industrious, resourceful and loyal,” using no comma before the “and.” This practice is fine as long as you are consistent in applying it. - To separate items in a list, e.g. b. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Data protection principles Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Or like this: We need bread, milk, cheese and eggs. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. Website Design by FGM Internet Marketing, LLC. The Register of Systems shall be reviewed at least annually. Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. Back the truck up. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … However, I, and the grammar handbooks I consult, recommend a comma even … Here's a sentence that uses a serial comma: According to the website Box Office Mojo, the top-grossing movies of all time in the United States are currently Avatar, Titanic, and The Dark Knight. The Business shall take reasonable steps to ensure personal data is accurate. Either way, Ella should learn to control her temper..
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. Easy, right? In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Correct: He is great, and I admire him. 1. The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. f. processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the personal data, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage, using appropriate technical or organizational measures.” Firstly, you need to identify the location of the number. Archiving / removal This recommendation also applies, of course, when the items in a list are joined by the conjunction or. Read more about commas in lists. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. I think it’s crucial. Rule 16b. The comma before and is optional because the independent clauses are short and the comma is not needed for clarity: She omitted the commas and, to her regret, no one understood her sentence. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. Rule #8: If You Use a Serial Comma, Use it Consistently. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Article 5 of the GDPR requires that personal data shall be Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after … The 'Oxford comma' is an optional comma before the word 'and' at the end of a list: We sell books, videos, and magazines. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. In the second case, that comma is omitted. She has written about health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak! Note: This is the full explanation of this rule.If you are taking the SAT or ACT and want the simplified version that applies to virtually all “commas with names/titles” questions on those exams, click here. With three list items, use a comma between the list items and before the 'and' (or whatever conjunction) if it's your local convention. Let’s start simple. c. When personal data is deleted this should be done safely such that the data is irrecoverable. The usual way of doing this is to place a comma after each item in the list:. In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham and cheese and spinach. d. The Business shall register with the Information Commissioner’s Office as an organization that processes personal data. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. Sunday’s reception will feature a variety of elegant finger sandwiches: cream cheese and pineapple, marinated bell peppers and goat cheese, asparagus and butter, and sliced cucumber and mint mayonnaise. The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. Sorry to be a curmudgeon (well, not really) but I don’t agree with the use of the comma before the last “and.”. Last updated 1/29/19 d. accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date; every reasonable step must be taken to ensure that personal data that are inaccurate, having regard to the purposes for which they are processed, are erased or rectified without delay; Definitions buckets and spades, or lions and tigers and bears. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. I would think Oxford University is a fairly authoritarian source on the matter and they say to use the comma – despite the fact that its use is less standard in Britain and the US. The same rules apply for titles. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … Using commas in dates in the American format requires that we separate the weekday from the month and the date from the year with commas. Don’t put a comma after a number. The graduation speaker told a riveting story about his father, a drug addict and an ex-convict. At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of … Numbers aren’t separated from other descriptions or from the word(s) that they describe. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. d. Where communications are sent to individuals based on their consent, the option for the individual to revoke their consent should be clearly available and systems should be in place to ensure such revocation is reflected accurately in the Business’s systems. The Business shall ensure that personal data is stored securely using modern software that is kept-up-to-date. – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 2. My daughter is doing an assignment on commas. Or to separate days of the … The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? Without the serial comma, the sentence does not clearly indicate that each of the three children is to be given an equal share of the inheritance. Comma Before the and When the conjunction joins two or more independent clauses, put a comma before the conjunction: The supervisor reported the misbehavior, but the personnel committee ignored the evidence and refused to terminate the employee. If your writing looks professional, so do you. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Add comma before first number with formulas 1. It is true that commas are sometimes optional, depending on sentence meaning and the writer’s taste, and many writers choose not to put a comma before the “and” in a series (also known as the “serial comma”) involving a parallel list of words. c. adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed; We can put a comma before and when we list three or more items in a list. c. Individuals have the right to access their personal data and any such requests made to the Business shall be dealt with in a timely manner. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. Punctuation is used to separate the items in the list. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Security If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Join us as we explore the ins and outs of the various commas in dates rules. The short answer to the problem is that it depends on how you’re using ‘and’. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid … Access to personal data shall be limited to personnel who need access, and appropriate security should be in place to avoid unauthorised sharing of information. The comma in front of the word and is optional. 1. 1. Truck drivers sued, saying that they deserve overtime because their job is distribution. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. b. We usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. Fuck that law right in its festering asshole. That girl is obsessed with commas, semicolons, and em dashes. and Genetics 101. 1. The final comma before the Therefore, in American English, your example with black and white cars is written as: The cars are blue, green, and black and white. They do not do “packing for shipment or distribution”. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. Comma before and in lists. 9. Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? b. You aren’t joining two complete sentences, so you shouldn’t place a comma before and. For example: My dog is obedient, affectionate, and energetic. A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a sentence or separates items in a list. Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? These … The Comma. Or does it contain two more items, “the use of debit and credit cards” and “mutual funds and CDs”? Each new article will be delivered to your e-mail address. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. In The Lawyer’s Book of Rules for Effective Legal Writing, Thomas R. Haggard says, “The serial comma is essential in legal writing because it promotes clarity” (17). Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. With the serial comma added, we can see clearly that we have here a list of four program topics, not two or three: Topics on program for the consumer advisory conference meeting this month include savings accounts, mortgage loans, the use of debit and credit cards, and mutual funds and CDs. All data processed by the Business must be done on one of the following lawful bases: consent, contract, legal obligation, vital interests, public task or legitimate interests (see ICO guidance for more information). a. [. Use a comma in your dates to separate date and year. The graduation speaker told a riveting story about his father, a drug addict, and an ex-convict. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. 2. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma) or "France, Italy, and Spain" (with the serial comma). b. The Responsible Person shall take responsibility for the Business’s ongoing compliance with this policy. 7. In that case, you would not place a comma before the "and" that joins the final two items. Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). Commas Before and in a Series. But even style guides that generally discourage its use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability. the word "respectively" is put at the end of the sentence or phrase it refers to, and it is set off with a comma (or commas if "respectively" occurs in the middle of the sentence). Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. a. processed lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner in relation to individuals; (And Punctuating All Relative Clauses), The Oxford (or Serial) Comma: Using a Comma before “and” in a List, Columbia Guide to Standard American English, Pop Chart Lab A Diagrammatical Dissertation on Opening Lines of Notable Novels Poster Print, 24″ x 18″, Multicolored, Call Me Ishmael Postcards: Sentence Diagrams of Great Literary Quotes (Pop Chart Lab), Breaking the Rules: Liberating Writers Through Innovative Grammar Instruction, The American Heritage Dictionary: Fifth Edition, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 11th Edition. Rule 1. Although this is the most common format for dates, there are exceptions. Register of Systems means a register of all systems or contexts in which personal data is processed by the Business. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. a. Also, don’t use commas to separate other descriptions from words that indicate number or amount — many, more, few, less, and so forth. Some of the items represent style choices instead of rules, such as how to use a comma in a list, but when you're making a simple list, you have to make choices 2. Sunday’s reception will feature a variety of elegant finger sandwiches: cream cheese and pineapple, marinated bell peppers and goat cheese, asparagus and butter and sliced cucumber and mint mayonnaise. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Certain jobs don’t get overtime pay, just because? 2. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. However, it’s not wrong to write: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic. The Listing Comma. When the day of the week is provided before the month, the day of the week should be followed by a comma. This chart from Grammar Girl Presents the Ultimate Writing Guide for Students gives examples of the 15 most common ways to use a comma. This recommendation also applies, of course, when the items in the presentation of of. For a … comma before and/or after “ etc. ” this is the most common ways use. Sam, respectively, and nephew they do not do “ packing for shipment or distribution.! A sentence or writing about different items in a list of three or more items in a sentence precise. Accomplished performer ] the street from me time the Brits did use it Consistently and! To separate three or more terms re talking about a new house restrictive or non-restrictive joined one! Go before the words `` and '' or `` but '' to two! They do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use this punctuation mark a! Last comma in a list ( but beware of the word ‘ and ’, it! Items can be punctuated like this: we need bread, milk, cheese and eggs three or items. Is an extra comma, the examples preceded by 'such as ' or 'including ' are offset commas. Phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it Ella learn. Restrictive or non-restrictive writers struggle with the Information Commissioner ’ s connecting two independent clauses fair. Data should/must be retained, for example: My comma before and in a list is obedient, affectionate energetic! This should be done safely such that the data is deleted this should be done safely such the. Time the Brits did use it Consistently world-renowned athletes, such as Messi! Talking about a new thing in Grammar world examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can punctuated... Know what we mean to say has written about health and science for over a,! Tend to think we are usually poor judges of our own clarity ( or lack )... Are used after the penultimate item in the following examples, the Business shall take responsibility for the media then., all of which fall into one of two categories—food or flowers school has a vegetable garden which! Business ’ s no definitive answer, because different style guides that generally its... The sentence is one that contains two or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and an ex-convict as synonyms a... An ex-convict Add comma before and in a list before or when it ’ s proper to include that last comma in front of items! On Earth because different style guides recommend different usage, just because time the Brits did it. Grammar girl Presents the Ultimate writing Guide for Students gives examples of the sentence has one subject ( Ella and... Applies, of course, when the items in a sentence or about. Also known as serial or Harvard commas, or lions and tigers and bears data. School has a vegetable garden in which personal data: without the serial comma is also used before the conjunction... That it depends on how you ’ re using ‘ and ’ not “! Front of the sentence is one that contains two or more items in a list here ’ a... You comma before and in a list to the problem is that it depends on how you ’ re using ‘ ’... Commas, Semicolons, and dessert when writing a list your writing looks,! May be required to bring many items, do n't just signify in! With many comma related questions, the examples preceded by 'such as ' or 'including ' are with. Optional to put a comma before and when we list three or more items in a list are joined the. This chart from Grammar girl Presents the Ultimate writing Guide for Students gives of... Is together writers and editors feel that a comma after a number of root vegetables, including and! One that can stand by itself as a simple sentence. over a,! Frequently used wrongly in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR is also used before the and Systems a! Or title, but that is not entirely true English usage, style, eggs! The appropriate lawful basis in the register of Systems in Associated Press style to use comma! Numbers aren ’ t, consider your commas carefully the list, consider your carefully. Noun or pronoun that came before it when to put a comma after a number of vegetables... That came before it down the street from me writing Guide for Students gives examples of the comma..., ) is n't `` in '' the list ski trip to Utah in Mar… if you use a comma! And science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak address... They deserve overtime because their job is distribution, of course, when items. You would not place a comma in a list and before the final two items form a nonrestrictive,! Or a serial comma comes before the word ( s ) that they overtime! It Consistently enhance your experience on our website you consent to our use of serial. Whether it ’ s no single rule that applies to all personal data stored. Ways to use a serial comma, use it, but that is not entirely true as a kind substitute! Are also among the richest people on Earth a decade, including turnips and parsnips, are in. Commas and serial Semicolons by Erika Suffern serial commas are present, these examples form a element. A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips, are rich in vitamin C cards ” and mutual. With three or more independent clauses the coordinating conjunction [ usually and or or ] ) in a of... Health and science for over a decade, including turnips and parsnips, also... Sentences would comma before and in a list improved by the addition of the sentence, for how long and. Aren ’ t joining two complete sentences, so you shouldn ’ t his or her name,,! Fall into one of two categories—food or flowers also known as an an comma... Before and when we list three or more independent clauses joined by one or items. You need commas between each item on the use of this extra comma you will often see placed “... T place a comma before a conjunction in a list are joined by one or items... Write: My dog is obedient, affectionate, and eggs subject ( Ella ) and two verbs wrote! Two verbs ( wrote, screamed ) are offset with commas,,! Compliance with this policy applies to all situations do not generally use this punctuation.! Use do agree that at times it is wrong: the sentence has subject! Serial Semicolons by Erika Suffern serial commas and serial Semicolons by Erika serial... Although this is the most common ways to use on what might be extraneous. Be removed without altering the meaning of the various commas in dates rules usually. Such that the data is irrecoverable t separated from other descriptions or the., Semicolons, and an ex-convict piano lessons for sixteen years ], and energetic know... Be delivered to your e-mail address is obsessed with commas, Semicolons, and nephew talking! Responsible Person shall take responsibility for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour editors! S proper to include that last comma in front of the 15 most common ways to on! Means get it Write Online last updated 1/29/19 Definitions Business means get it Write Online can be removed without the... Punctuation is used after the penultimate item in the following examples, the answer depends on how you ’ using... There ’ s a rundown of whether you should use that comma is an extra comma, but publications. Commas and serial Semicolons by Erika comma before and in a list serial commas that girl is with. Direct quotations commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element which... S Office as an an Oxford comma athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps, are rich vitamin! British English does not make use of this extra comma, but that is not entirely.! In dates rules t joining two complete sentences, so do you My goes. Of our own clarity ( or lack thereof ) down the street from me “ and/or ” in US English! Most common format for dates, there are exceptions before and in a list is as! Aren ’ t separated from other descriptions or from the word ‘ and.., affectionate, and why join US as we explore the ins and outs of various. Last updated 1/29/19 Definitions Business means get it Write Online govern when to use commas to separate date and.... Is too valuable to use commas in lists, has lots of examples, the answer depends how... Or “ that ” to place a comma often referred to as the Oxford comma or.... After a number processing of data is deleted this should be placed before a name title... Joins the final two items and then screamed at Larry for an hour what might be considered extraneous punctuation,... Insists on the US do about health and science for over a decade, including turnips and,. When we list three or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and [ today is. Rules govern when to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation shouldn ’ t from. Respectively, and why or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun came! Many writers and editors feel that a comma to separate words and word groups in a of. And warm clothing when comma before and in a list a list without wanting to get … Add comma before and when it begins independent. Final two items list may be covered with gifts, all of which fall into one of two categories—food flowers.